UMD Undergraduate Research Journal

Marxism and Frantz Fanon's Theory of Colonial Identity: Parallels between Racial and Commodity-Based Fetishism

Jacqueline Crowell

Abstract

Despite Frantz Fanon's and Karl Marx's shared goal of the emancipation of all human beings from oppression, Fanon maintains in his final book, The Wretched of the Earth, that the connection between his theory of colonial identity and Marxist ideology cannot be reduced to a superficial doctrine of class struggles. Though Fanon resisted an oversimplified comparison with Marxist theory, this paper argues that Fanon's analysis of the colonizers' fabricated identity of the colonized is derived from the structure of Marx's monetized social relations and the fetishism of the commodity which produces these relations. Marx defines commodity fetishism as the phenomenon in which the commodity is endowed with value through the labor process yet ultimately has a perceived value that is independent of the labor that produced it. Fanon adjusts this concept to the economic and psychological differences of colonialism. Fanon articulates that the colonial social relations are "epidermalized" and expressed through the whiteness of one's skin rather than monetized and expressed through the exchange of the money-form in the commodity market. Beyond the structural similarities between the commodity fetishism in the capitalist society and the colonial racial fetishism, this paper explores the deeper causal relationship between the two phenomena: the alienation of the colonizer which is projected onto the identity of the colonized and the ensuing exclusion of the colonized--from recognition of both their humanity and their identities--which constitutes the colonization of the native selfhood.

Body

In his fifth chapter of Black Skin, White Masks entitled "The Lived Experience of the Black Man," Frantz Fanon recounts his journey as an educated black man who hopes to discover "a world we could build together" as he travels from the colonies to the metropolis [1]. During his trip, Fanon discovers the colonization of his selfhood. This results from the "deep-rooted myth" that fetishizes race and excludes the colonized from membership within the human race by segregating the black natives from the white colonizers and confining the colonized to the status of an animal [2]. In Fanon's racialized division between colonizers and colonized resonates Karl Marx's dichotomy between capitalists and workers. As Marx explains, this capitalist distinction is symptomatic of the "mysterious character of the commodity-form," which is created by the ostensible detachment of the value produced by the laboring process [3]. This value is perceived as an inherent attribute of the commodity, which generates the expression of capitalism's social relations through the money- form and facilitates the exploitation of the workers by their capitalist oppressors. However, David Marriott asserts in his article "On Racial Fetishism" that there is an "antinomian relation" between the theories of Marx and Fanon because, although Marx's commodity fetishism remains relevant in the capitalist society, it is inadequate to explain Fanon's construction of race in the colonial context [4]. By contrasting Fanon's construction of race with commodity and Freudian fetishism, Marriott construes Fanon's racial fetishism as a stereotype arising from the racial phobias of colonial society. I argue that Marriott's view of the limitations of commodity fetishism extends from an inaccurately rigid interpretation of Marx's theory. Fanon instead employs Marx's commodity fetishism as both a structural and causal model to describe his construction of race as a myth emerging from the colonization of the native identity rather than as an authentic biological characteristic.

Through the development of Fanon's assertion that "a Marxist analysis should always be slightly stretched every time we have to do with the colonial problem," this paper argues that Fanon adapts the commodity fetishism of capitalism and the Marxist connection between humanity and selfhood to explain colonialism's dual deception of racial fetishism [5]. Lacking the integrative exchange processes of capitalist society, colonialism produces social relations that assess value according to the whiteness of one's skin rather than through the money-form. Just as the monetized relations of capitalism result from the fetishism of the commodity, these colonial social relations defined by skin color originate from the fetishism of race which appears inherently valuable as a reified biological fact that actually derive its value from the false constructs of the white colonizers. Furthermore, this colonial racial fetishism originates from the phenomena of commodity fetishism in the capitalist metropolis due to the colonizers' estrangement from the products of their labor. By projecting their alienation within the capitalist system onto the colonized identity and, in turn, confining the colonized to a merely biological existence, the colonizers transcend the bounds of economic oppression through their colonization of the native selfhood.

In his critique of the application of commodity fetishism to Fanon's racial fetishism, Marriott argues that Marx's "one-sided emphasis on the reification of labor" proves insufficient to describe how "not only economic relations that come to be naturalized under the guise of immediacy but the phantasmatic nature of civil society itself " [6]. Marriott construes Marx's commodity fetishism as a concept limited to explaining the economic structure of society which fails to pertain to the all-encompassing presence of race within the colonial context. However, commodity fetishism not only perverts the realities of society's economic base but moreover commodifies the entire social relations of capitalism. This distortion of the subjective interactions of individuals into the objective symbol of the money-form creates the racialized relations of colonialism. Conversely, Marx explains that, unlike colonial society and prior historical arrangements of production, the capitalist society acquires its unity through social relations defined by exchange due to the lack of perceptible interaction amongst these relations. Because the products of labor are immediately exchanged as commodities, their producers appear invisible throughout the production process and only encounter each other through the exchange of these products as expressed through the "universal equivalent" of the money-form. Through the assessment of all the commodities in terms of their relative exchange-values, instead of their use-values, the money-form reifies and "conceals the social character of private labour and the social relations between the individual workers, by making those relations appear as relations between material objects" [7]. Therefore, in Marx's analysis of the capitalist society, members recognize themselves and their fellow relations not as human beings but through the money-form, itself a commodity fetishized with this function as a "matter of accident," that they receive for their commodities [8].

In the theories of Marx and Fanon, both theorists argue that the societies that they analyze each represent "a world cut in two." Marx argues that this is constituted by the conflict between the "compartments" of the capitalist and the worker, whereas the tension between the colonizer and colonized native replace this class struggle within Fanon's colonial context [9]. Because colonialism lacks the exchange relations of capitalism, Fanon's analysis adapts Marx's theory to colonialism by purporting that the colonial social relations assess value, not through the money-form, but instead through the whiteness of one's skin. During the initial phases of expansion, the colonies serve to further the economic interests of capitalist society. Lacking the capitalist bourgeoisie "to create the conditions for the development of a large-scale proletariat, to mechanise agriculture" and employing the colonized as "forced labour," the colony remains stagnant between its original structure of semi-feudalism and the parasitic colonizers' disinterest in establishing the exchange processes of capitalism [10]. Fanon thus describes the colonies "as a source of raw material which, once turned into manufactured goods, could be distributed on the European market" [11]. While the workers' positions as "someone who exchanges, posits exchange value, and maintains exchange value though exchange" integrates them into capitalist society, the institution of colonialism excludes the colonized natives from the cohesive exchange relations of capitalism and thus requires the universal equivalent of whiteness to integrate both the colonizers and the colonized into its exploitative social relations [12].

Without capitalism's commodified exchange relations expressed through the money-form, the relationships within colonial society assume the form of skin color which preserves the exploitative distinction between the colonizers and the colonized. Whiteness serves as the embodiment of value and indicates "beauty and virtue, which have never been black" [13]. Fanon thus explains that "the cause is the consequence: You are rich because you are white, you are white because you are rich" [14]. Whiteness appears to express the "use-values" of individuals' characteristics, such as intelligence and wealth, but it only serves to replace the money-form as the indicator of worth in the colonies. Fanon consequently affirms that, "the [black] native is declared insensible to ethics, he represents not only the absence of values, but also the negation of values" [15]. Since whiteness constitutes the highest amount of value, blackness constitutes the absolute lack of value. For instance, Fanon observes that "the Antillean is more 'value' than the African" because "he is closer to the white man." Fanon thus concludes that "the black man is comparison" to the colonizers because he constantly assesses his value in terms of his skin color in relation to the universal equivalent of whiteness [16].

Fanon affirms that these social rela- tions expressed through skin color are manifested psychologically by the natives' obsession for the metaphorical whitening of their skin which he refers to as "lac- tification." In her book entitled I Am a Martinican Woman, Mayotte Capecia comprehends the apparently inherent value of whiteness; and, "unable to blacken or negrify the world," she strives for lactification [17]. Her worth is entirely defined by the white world. As a laundress, her white linens earn her extra money. The knowledge that her grandmother was white fills her with pride and makes her own mother seem beautiful. Furthermore, Mayotte's attempt to add "a little whiteness in life" through her affair with a white soldier represents her desire for lactification and the dominant value of whiteness within sexual relationship in the colonial society [18]. Just as Marx affirms that within the capitalist system, the husband "sees his wife a mere instrument of production," the member of colonial society views his or her spouse in terms of skin color [19]. This domination and concealment of the colonial social relations by skin color perverts even the personal lives of colonialism's members.

Although the epidermalized social relations may appear to present the possibility of advancement through lactification, colonialism's physical indicator of value further perpetuates its unified structure through the necessary separation between the colonizer and the colonized. Fanon demonstrates the efficacy of this structure through his example of Mayotte, for she "is not tolerated in certain circles, because she is a colored woman" despite her relationship with a white man [20]. In the capitalist society, this visible distinction of skin color is unnecessary because the "multitude of sermonizers, counselors, and 'confusion-mongers'" intervene between the capitalists and the workers, leading the workers to view their wages as fair exchanges for their products [21]. In contrast, the "immediate presence and their frequent and direct action" of the police and armed forces that define colonial society requires a conspicuous demarcation between the colonizer and the colonized. Fanon explains that "since none may enslave, rob or kill his fellow-man without committing a crime," the colonizers must establish a "principle that the native is not one of our fellow-men" [22]. Just as the capitalists employ their economic authority over the workers yet still appear to maintain their ethical standards of liberalism, the colonizers' violent exertions of power over the colonized natives require the legitimization of this authority through the manipulation, rather than the concealment, of the difference of skin color that defines the colonial relationships.

The absence of exchange relations within the colonial society precludes the formation of social relations designated through the money-form, so why do the colonial relations become expressed through the form of skin color? In adjusting Marx's economic analysis of capitalism to colonial society, Fanon answers this question by applying his psychoanalytic theory that the epidermalized social relations arise from the colonizers' psychological compulsion to satisfy the inferiority complex caused by alienation under capitalism. In his argument, Fanon draws from the analysis of French psychoanalysis Octave Mannoni who, in his book Prospero and Caliban: The Psychology of Colonization, argues that the inferiority complex of the white colonizers, along with the dependency complex of the colonized natives fostered by their loss of societal stability, creates the patterns of domination which characterizes the colonial context. While rejecting Mannoni's diagnosis of the dependency complex of the colonized, Fanon concludes that "the white colonial is driven only by his desire to put an end to a feeling of dissatisfaction on the level of Adlerian overcompensation" [23]. According to Austrian psychotherapist Alfred Adler, certain individuals compensate for their inferiority complexes by developing superiority complexes in which they degrade the differentiating characteristics of other individuals or groups. Fanon adapts this argument to the colonial complex by explaining that the superiority established by the colonizer arises from the comparison to the colonized where "each understands the other only in relation to what they are not" [24]. The colony consequently serves as an outlet through which the colonizers compensate for their dissatisfaction by asserting their superiority over the colonized through the endowment of the visible difference of skin color with value. The colonizers recognize the colonized through their blackness, while the colonized recognizes the colonizers through their whiteness. The result is an epidermalized Manichaean society defined by the universal equivalent of whiteness through which all members assess their value, just as the members of capitalist society recognize each other through their respective exchange-values. By confining colonizers to their superior whiteness and the colonized to their inferior blackness, colonialism nurtures an appearance of psychological and social coherence.

The social relations of capitalism and colonialism originate from and conceal the underlying fetishism which distorts the personal identities of these society's members and their interpersonal interactions. However, the relationship between these fetishisms is not merely structural but also causal. Fanon's theory of colonial racial fetishism proceeds from Marx's account of the alienation in capitalist society due to the fetishism of the commodity. Because of the impalpability of labor within the capitalist system, the products' exchange-values "appear to result from the nature of the products," rather than from the labor that is responsible for their value [25]. Labor thus becomes reified as a commodity, and the commodity in turn becomes fetishized with value that appears inherent yet only exists as a result of the labor that created it. Through this phenomenon of commodity fetishism, the process of labor that provides for self-recognition and recognition of one's humanity is commodified and perceived as estranged from the laborer.

Like the commodity fetishism of capitalism Fanon's assessment of colonialism's racial fetishism creates a divide between appearance and reality. This fetishism occurs through both the perception of race as a reified biological characteristic that possesses inherent, objective value and the reinforcement of this fetishism by colonialism's "cultural mummification" entailed by the supplanting of the native identity with the colonizers' illusions [26]. It is through this realization of the biological conception of race that Fanon first recognizes his exclusion from the world of his white colleagues. On the public transportation system, he immediately faces "difficulties in elaborating his body schema" because of his skin color [27]. Because of the inferiority associated with his race, Fanon cannot express himself physically. Nevertheless, his physical limitations do not arise from actual biological inferiority. Rather, the colonized is "overdetermined from the outside," for his biological characteristics indicate an inescapable yet imperceptible construction of the colonized identity which results from a colonization of selfhood [28]. Fanon affirms that the explanation of race as "genotypically and phenotypically" determined is merely a myth forged through the colonial culture and history proceeding from the colonizers' psychological and economic needs [29]. Beneath his constrained body-schema, Fanon thus recognizes the existence of a "historical-racial schema" that was "provided not by 'remnants of feelings and notions of the tactile, vestibular, kinesthetic, or visual nature' but by the Other, the white man, who had woven me out of a thousand detail, anecdotes, and stories" and produces the illusion of inferiority attached to his skin color. Colonial society assesses him in terms of the value that they view as inherent within his biological characteristics without recognizing this value as a product of "legends, stories, history, and especially the historicity" ascribed to him by the colonizers [30]. This fabricated identity maintains the appearance of the colonizers' biological superiority and conceals their oppressive role as the originators of this racial fetishism.

Beyond basing his analysis of racial fetishism on the structure of Marxist commodity fetishism, Fanon also affirms that this racial fetishism originates from the relationship between commodity fetishism and alienation that, by estranging the colonizer from his humanity, induces the projection of the colonizer's estrangement onto the colonized identity. According to Marx, the process of labor constitutes the "means of life" through which individuals reproduce themselves in the external world [31]. However, because commodity fetishism conceals the relationship between the products of labor and their producers, these products appear "as something alien, as a power independent of the producer," resulting in the loss of each producer's selfhood [32]. Unable to view themselves in this material realm as individuals, the workers also cannot view themselves as human beings, for Marx further affirms that "free, conscious activity is man's species character" [33]. Through commodity fetishism, the members of capitalist society are alienated from the labor which facilitates the recognition of their humanity. Once within the colonial context, the subjects of capitalism psychologically compensate for this alienation by exploiting the colonized as the "scapegoat for white society" and projecting their inhuman ity upon the identity of their colonized subjects [34]. The inability of both the worker and capitalist to express the "life of the species" produces "a feeling of inadequacy in relation to the black man" for which the colonized compensate by the creation of racial fetishism in the colonies [35, 36]. The colonizers "feel they have become too mechanized, [and] they turn to the Coloreds and request a little human sustenance" through the colonization of the native selfhood [37]. They are thus "mystifying and mystified;" the colonizers compensate for their inferiority complex emerging from the capitalist alienation by reducing the colonized to corporeal existence which results in the exclusion of the colonized both from membership within the human species and from the production of an identity independent of the inhumanity ascribed to them by the colonizer [38].

Racial fetishism culminates in the colonization of the native selfhood by defining the colonized as "nothing but biological" and hence excluding them from recognizing themselves as individual members of humanity [39]. Science unsuccessfully attempts to demonstrate that the colonized belong to an inhuman species through "the characteristics of the cell layer of the cortex, the dimensions of the vertebrae, the microscopic appearance of the epiderm" [40]. By confining the colonized to the status of an animal, the colonizers limit membership within the human species to only those who possess the contingent characteristic of whiteness and produce colonialism's racial fetishism through the appearance of this inhumanity as a biologically constituted fact instead of colonialism's deceptive creation. This "ontologization of whiteness" as the sole determination of humanity excludes the colonized from recognizing their selfhood as members of humanity [41]. Reduced to corporeal existence by the colonizers, the colonized possess "no culture, no civilization, and no 'long historical fact'" with which to form authentic identities and are forced to internalize the fabricated identities provided by their oppressors [42].

During his trip to Paris, Fanon recognizes this loss of selfhood of the colonized that culminates in the "epidermalization" of the individual identity formed by the colonized oppressors and consequently fosters the racial fetishism that pervades colonial society [43]. Upon acknowledging the "historical-racial schema" which symbolizes the colonial racial fetishism, Fanon consequently finds himself, "collapsing, giving way to an epidermal racial schema." Fanon's inhumanity, defined by his skin color, instigates him to describe that "I transported myself on that particular day, far, very far, from my self, and gave myself up as an object" [44]. Utilizing the Marxist connection between humanity and selfhood, Fanon explains this process of the colonization of selfhood which precipitates and perpetuates racial fetishism as a result of this ontologization of whiteness. According to Marx, each human being "adopts the species as his object (his own as well as those of other things)" and "because he treats himself as the actual, living species" by reproducing himself in the material world [45]. By recognizing themselves as members of the human species, they also recognize their individual identities. Conversely, colonialism separates the colonized self from the corporeal being, forcing the colonized to refer to the colonizers for the source of their identities.

While the commodity fetishism of capitalism alienates the workers from their species-being by precluding them from self-recognition through the product of their labor, colonialism reverses this process by precluding the colonized from selfhood through alienation from their species-being. As Fanon explains through the model of the Hegelian master-slave relationship, the colonized subjects "can in no way be equated with the slave who loses himself in the object and finds the source of his liberation in his work." The biological characteristic of skin color which propagates the illusion of colonialism's racial fetishism and precludes the colonized from recognizing their species-being subsequently precludes the colonized from recognizing themselves as members of this species. Unable to even reveal their selfhood through the physical reproduction of their identities due to the distortion of racial fetishism, the colonized look "toward the master and abandons the object" and recognize themselves through the colonizer [46]. The colonized must either live without identities, remaining nonbeings; or internalize the inhuman identity created by the colonizer. However, because racial fetishism reduces the colonized to the biological characteristic of skin color, they possess no self with which to internalize this inauthentic identity. Lacking genuine identity, they can only identify with the value imbued into their skin color. This internalization is therefore the "epidermalization" of the racial fetishism fostered by the tales of inhumanity and inferiority through the confinement of the colonized to mere biological existence [47].

In his conclusion of Black Skin, White Masks, Fanon quotes Karl Marx's The Eighteenth Brumaire: "The social revolution...cannot begin with itself before it has stripped itself of all its superstitions concerning the past" [48]. Marx continues in this work to explain that the abolition of exploitation in society can only begin by tearing away the "peculiarly shaped feelings, illusions, habits of thought, and conceptions of life," which even consist of the racial fetishism of colonialism, and recognizing their origin in society's "material foundation and out of the corresponding social conditions" [49]. According to Marx, the construction of race in the colonies is inseparable from the economic structure of society from which it arises. However, in diminishing race to mere economic terms, Marx appears to have failed in his process of dismantling the structures that conceal oppression. Refusing to view either race or economics purely as equations of the other, Fanon instead affirms that, "All forms of exploitation are identical, since they apply to the same 'object': man" [50]. All attempts to reduce exploitation to the distorting effects of race or the commodity are deceptive because they overlook the victims of this exploitation. The liberation of society must therefore focus on the disalienation of its members. Overthrowing oppression and beginning a world free from the illusive shadows of exploitation, a world in which each lives as "a man among men," also entails extricating oneself from "the Ruse of a black world" as well as the economic doctrine of class struggles [51]. Just as the process of disalienation cannot occur when conforming to the history of the colonizers or waiting for changes in society's economic basis, it also cannot be viewed as the reclamation of a lost history of the natives. Disalienation requires stepping into a future that is free from the fetishisms of the past where society's members recognize one another not through their respective skin colors or as quantities of money but solely as human beings.

References

[1] F. Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Richard Phil- cox. New York: Grove Press, 1952, pp. 92.

[2] Ibid., 128.

[3] K. Marx, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, vol. 1. Trans. Ben Fowkes. New York: Vintage Books, 1976, pp. 164.

[4] D. Marriott, "On Racial Fetishism," Qui Parle: Critical Humanities and Social Sciences, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 215, Spring/Summer 2010.

[5] F. Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth. Trans. Richard Phil- cox. New York, Grove Press, Inc., 1963, pp. 32.

[6] D. Marriott, "On Racial Fetishism," Qui Parle: Critical Humanities and Social Sciences, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 220, Spring/Summer 2010.

[7] K. Marx, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, vol. 1. Trans. Ben Fowkes. New York: Vintage Books, 1976, pp. 168-169.

[8] Ibid., 183.

[9] F. Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth. Trans. Richard Philcox. New York, Grove Press, Inc., 1963, pp. 31.

[10] Ibid., 141, 13.

[11] Ibid., 51.

[12] K. Marx, Grundrisse: foundations of the critique of political economy (rough draft). Trans. Martin Nicolaus. Great Britain: Penguin Books, 1973, pp. 419.

[13] F. Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Richard Philcox. New York: Grove Press, 1952, pp. 27.

[14] F. Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth. Trans. Richard Philcox. New York, Grove Press, Inc., 1963, pp. 32.

[15] Ibid., 33-34.

[16] F. Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Richard Philcox. New York: Grove Press, 1952, pp. 9.

[17] Ibid., 29.

[18] Ibid., 25.

[19] K. Marx and F. Engels, The Communist Manifesto. Trans. Samuel Moore. New York: Penguin Books, 1967, pp. 101.

[20] F. Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Richard Philcox. New York: Grove Press, 1952, pp. 26.

[21] F. Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth. Trans. Richard Philcox. New York, Grove Press, Inc., 1963, pp. 31.

[22] Ibid, 13.

[23] F. Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Richard Philcox. New York: Grove Press, 1952, pp. 65.

[24] N. Kane, "Fanon's Theory of Racialization: Implications for Globalization," Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge, vol. 356, Summer 2007.

[25] K. Marx, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, vol. 1. Trans. Ben Fowkes. New York: Vintage Books, 1976, pp. 168, 169.

[26] F. Fanon, Toward the African Revolution--Political Essays. Trans. Haakon Chevalier. New York: Grove Press, 1964, pp. 34.

[27] F. Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Richard Philcox. New York: Grove Press, 1952, pp. 90-91.

[28] Ibid., 96.

[29] F. Fanon, Toward the African Revolution--Political Essays. Trans. Haakon Chevalier. New York: Grove Press, 1964, pp. 32.

[30] F. Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Richard Philcox. New York: Grove Press, 1952, pp. 91.

[31] K.Marx and F. Engels, "Estranged Labor," in Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 and the Communist Manifesto. Trans. Martin Milligan, Amherst: Prometheus Books, 1988, pp. 76.

[32] Ibid., 71.

[33] Ibid., 76.

[34] F. Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Richard Philcox. New York: Grove Press, 1952, pp. 170.

[35] K.Marx and F. Engels, "Estranged Labor," in Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 and the Communist Manifesto. Trans. Martin Milligan, Amherst: Prometheus Books, 1988, pp. 76.

[36] F. Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Richard Philcox. New York: Grove Press, 1952, pp. 136.

[37] Ibid., 108.

[38] Ibid., 12-13.

[39] Ibid., 143-144.

[40] F. Fanon, Toward the African Revolution--Political Essays. Trans. Haakon Chevalier. New York: Grove Press, 1964, pp. 32.

[41] M. Nissim-Sabat, "Fanonian Musings," in Fanon and the Decolonization of Philosophy. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2010, pp. 44.

[42] F. Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Richard Philcox. New York: Grove Press, 1952, pp. 17.

[43] Ibid., xvii.

[44] Ibid., 91-92.

[45] K.Marx and F. Engels, "Estranged Labor," in Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 and the Communist Manifesto. Trans. Martin Milligan, Amherst: Prometheus Books, 1988, pp. 75.

[46] F. Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Richard Philcox. New York: Grove Press, 1952, pp. 195.

[47] Ibid., xvii.

[48] Ibid., 198.

[49] K. Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. Trans. Daniel De Leon, Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Company, 1913, pp. 48.

[50] F. Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Richard Philcox. New York: Grove Press, 1952, pp. 68.

[51] Ibid., 92, 204.